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Address (Wallet Address)

The Address wallet is used for sending and receiving transactions on a blockchain network. An address is an alphanumeric character string, that can be represented as a scannable QR code.


Airdrop is a token distribution method that is used for sending cryptocurrency or tokens to the wallet addresses. Airdrops are utilized for marketing purposes in exchange for simple tasks like reshapes, referrals, or app downloads.


Air-gapping is a method for securing computers in which the device does not connect to the internet or any other open networks.


Altcoin is any digital currency alternative to Bitcoin. Many of the altcoins are forks of Bitcoin with any other minor changes for example - Litecoin.

AML (Anti-Money Laundering)

AML is a collection of international laws that enacted for diminishing the potential for criminal organizations or individuals for laundering money using cryptocurrencies.

API (Application Programming Interface)

API is a software intermediary that permits two different applications for communicating with one another.

ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)

ASICs are silicon chips that are designed for doing a specific task. ASIC utilized for minimizing cryptocurrencies and will perform a calculation for finding values that will provide a perfect solution when it will be placed into a hashing algorithm.

Accidental Fork

An Accidental fork happens when two or more miners chose the block simultaneously. After that one chain from the two becomes longer than the other one. Also, the whole network abandons the blocks that are not involved in the long chain. These blocks are called orphaned blocks.

Agreement Ledger

Agreement ledger is considered as a distributed ledger where two or more parties utilizes it for negotiating and reaching an agreement.

Attestation Ledgers

Attestation ledgers are the area units that are distributed ledgers that provide a sturdy record of agreements, statements, commitments and giving proof that all these agreements statements and commitments were created.



Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency that is based on the Proof of Work Blockchain. It was created in 2009 by Santoshi Nakomoto who was a pseudonym for an individual whose real identity is still unknown. The concept of cryptocurrency was mentioned in a white paper that was titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.”


A consensus digital ledger is comprised of unchangeable, digitally recorded data in packages called blocks. Every block is changed for the next block utilized a cryptographic signature. This allows blockchains for acting like a ledger that can be shared with and accessed by anyone with the approximate permissions. 

Block Height

Blockchain Height is the number of heights that are joined in the Blockchain. You can measure the block height by measuring the total amount of data that is present in the blockchain.

Block Reward

The reward is given for a miner after it has successfully hashed a transaction block. Block reward is a mixture of coins and transaction fees. The whole composition depends on the policy utilized by the cryptocurrency in the question and all of the coins have already been successfully mined. The existing block reward for the Bitcoin network is 12.5 bitcoins/block.

Bounty/ Bug Bounty

A reward that is paid for the completion of a provided task. Different tasks include finding out code vulnerabilities, creating content, design work, research, translations and social impact and more.

Blockchain Explorer

The Blockchain explorer is a type of tool that is used for checking the past or current transactions on a blockchain. It offers you with more details like transaction growth and network hash rate. By understanding the blockchain explorer, you can improve your knowledge about the blockchain definitions.


A block contains all the records of the digital transactions. Once the block is written into the chain of records then it will not get deleted or altered.

Block Ciphers

It is a method of encrypting text in which an algorithm and cryptographic keys are applied ta a data block at one time as the group instead of one bit at the same time.



It is a software that accesses a blockchain using a local computer and helps to process transactions. A client includes a cryptocurrency software wallet.


A coin or altcoin is a representation of digital asset value that is usually generated using their independent blockchain.

Cold Wallet / Cold Storage

The Cold wallet is an offline wallet that was never connected with the internet. These are the wallets that protect cryptocurrencies from getting hacked on the online platforms.

Confirmation / Block Confirmation

A confirmation can be defined as the network that has verified the blockchain transactions. This happens using a process that is called mining in a Proof of Work system for example Bitcoin. After the transaction gets confirmed it cannot be reversed or double spent.


The Consensus is the process that is used by a group having peers that are responsible for maintaining distributed ledger use.


Cryptocurrency is a digital currency that is based on the mathematic and utilizes the encryption techniques for regulating the creation of units of currency and verifying the fund transfer.


It is a method of secure communication using the code. Symmetric-key cryptography that is used by different blockchain networks for the transfer of cryptocurrencies.

Central ledger

A ledger that is maintained by the central agency.

Chain Linking

Chain linking is the process of connecting two blockchains so that the transactions in between the chain could take place.

Consortium Blockchain

A Consortium blockchain is a type of blockchain where a preselected collection of nodes handles the consensus process. also, it is called by the name of the permission blockchain network that can be a hybrid model that is built between the trusted entity model of private blockchains and low trustable provided by the public blockchain.


Cryptanalysis can be defined as the thesis of methods for knowing the meaning of the encrypted detail and that too without accessing the secret details.


Cryptojacking is considered as the secret use of the device for mining the cryptocurrency.

Cold Storage

Cryptocurrencies can be kept in cold storage by users. It is available in three forms that cover QR code, USB drive and a hardware wallet.

Chain Linking

It is a method of connecting two blockchains permitting transactions between the chains towards the required place. This will enable blockchains like Bitcoins to speak with diverse side chains permitting the exchange of assets between them.


Cypher is an algorithmic rule that is used for secret writing and decoding of the data. In general, cypher is additionally used for seeking advice from associate degree writing message that is called code.


Cryptanalysis is the study of different ways of getting the means of encrypted data and not accessing the key data that ordinary need to try to this.


DAO (Digital Decentralized autonomous Organization)

DAO is known as the digital decentralized autonomous organization. The first example of DAP was called The DAO. The DAO served as a form of investor-directed venture capital fund that is sought to offer enterprises with new decentralized business models. The code of Ethereum-based The DAO is open-source.


Decentralization is the transfer of authority and responsibility from a centralized organization or a government or a party towards a distributed network.

Decentralized Application (dapp)

It is an open-source software application with a back-end code that is running on a decentralized peer-to-peer network instead of a centralized server.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

Decentralized finance is usually called DeFi or also known as open finance that refers to the economic paradigm shift that is enabled by the decentralized technologies especially blockchain networks. DeFi shows a shift from a centralized and closed financial system towards a universally accessible economy which is based on open protocols that are interoperable, compassable and programmable.


It is a digital property that is put into a contract involving a diverse party like if certain conditions are not satisfied that property is automatically forfeited to the identified counterparty.

Digital Asset

Digital assets are the digital commodity which is electronically transferable, scarce and intangible with a market value.

Digital Identity

Digital identity is an online network identity that is adopted by an individual, organization and an electronic device.

Digital Signature

A code is generated by public key encryption and attached to an electronically transmitted document for verifying the contents of the document.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

DDoS is a type of cyber-attack under which the perpetrator is continuously overwhelming the system with requests to prevent the service of legitimate requests.

Distributed Ledger

It is a kind of database that spreads across various sites, countries and institutions. The records are being stored sequentially in a continuous ledger. Distributed ledger data can be permissioned or unpermissioned for controlling who can view it.


The concept of outlining says how hard it is to identify the blocks in a blockchain network during the Proof of Work mining. In the bitcoin network, there is difficulty in adjusting mining for altering blocks every 2016 blocks. All these are done for keeping the block verification time in ten minutes.

Double Spend

The event in which anyone in the Bitcoin network tries to send a particular bitcoin transaction to two diverse recipients in one time. although, every bitcoin transaction when confirmed it becomes impossible to double spend it. The more confirmation on the particular transaction will be, the fewer possibilities of double-spending the bitcoin from the transaction will be.


Decryption is the process that is utilized for turning the cipher-tent into the plain text.

Double Spending

Double spending occurs when some amount of money is being spent twice.

Digital Commodity

The Digital commodity is an electronically transferrable, intangible and scarce with the market value.

DYOR (Do Your Own Search)

Do Your Own Search (DYOR) looks at startups or entrepreneurs who are instructed to do their own research and don’t depend on anyone for taking their investment-related decisions. The Cryptocurrency is a volatile platform so the DYOR will be required when an investor will decide to invest.


It refers to the level of difficulty for verifying blocks in the blockchain network for Proof-of-Work mining.


EEA (Enterprise Ethereum Alliance)

It is a group of Ethereum core developers, startups and huge companies working simultaneously for commercializing and using Ethereum for diverse business applications.

EIP (Ethereum Improvement Proposals)

EIP describes standards for the Ethereum platform that includes core protocol specifications client APIs and contract standards.


Encryption is the process that is used for combining a document with a shorter string of data which is referred to as key for producing an output. This output can be decrypted back to the original plaintext by someone else who has the key.

ERC20 Token Standard

ERC is an abbreviation for Ethereum Request for comment and followed by the assignment number of the standard. ERC20 is a technical standard for smart contracts with the majority of Ethereum tokens that follow. The list of rules defines the requirements that any token can fulfil to get compliant and function under the Ethereum network.

ERC20 Token Standard

ERC is an abbreviation for Ethereum Request for comment and followed by the assignment number of the standard. ERC20 is a technical standard for smart contracts with the majority of Ethereum tokens that follow. The list of rules defines the requirements that any token can fulfil to get compliant and function under the Ethereum network.

ERC721 Token Standard

It is a non-fungible Ethereum token standard. The token standard is used for representing a unique digital asset that is not interchangeable.

Ether (ETH)

It is the native currency of the Ethereum blockchain network. Ether is also referred ETH that functions as the fuel of the Ethereum ecosystem by acting as a medium of incentive and form of the payment for the network participants for executing required operations.


Ethereum is a public blockchain network and a decentralized software platform on which developers build and run applications. 

EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine)

The EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) is Turing complete and allowing anyone anywhere for executing arbitrary EVM Byte Code. All types of Ethereum nodes run on the EVM. The project is designed for preventing denial-of-service attacks. It is a kind of home for smart contracts that are based on the Ethereum blockchain.


It is a place to trade cryptocurrency. Centralized exchanges are operated by companies like Coinbase and Gemini that functions as intermediaries while decentralized exchanges do not have any central authority.

Ethereum Classic

Ethereum classic may split from associate degree existing cryptocurrency where Ethereum is a tough fork.


Fiat Currency

Fiat currency is a government-issued currency, for example, US Dollars, Euros, Yuan, and Yen.


A fork builds an alternative version of blockchain and often are enacted intentionally for applying upgrades for a network. Soft Forks renders two chains with some compatibility on the other side. Hard Forks builds a new brand version of the chain that will be adopted for continuing participation.



A measure of the computational steps is needed for the transaction on the Ethereum network then equates to a fee for the network uses which paid in small units of ETH specified as Gwei.

Genesis Block

The Genesis block is the initial block of data that is computed in the history of a blockchain network.


A minuscule and common denomination of ETH and the unit where gas prices are specified.



A function that takes an input and outputs an alphanumeric string that is called hash value or digital fingerprint. Every block in the blockchain has the hash value that validates the whole transaction before it gets followed by its hash value. Hashes confirm transactions on the blockchain.


Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin have a finite supply rate that makes them a scarce digital commodity. The total amount of Bitcoin will ever be issued is 21 million. The number of bitcoins that are generated per block is decreased by 50% every four years. All these are called halving. Halving will take place in the year 2140.

Hard Fork

A hard fork happens when there are changes in the blockchain that are not backward compatible and required all participants to upgrade it to the new version to continue participating in the network.

Hardware Wallet

A physical device like the famed ledger wallet that can be connected to the web and interact with online exchanges and can be used as cold storage.

Hot Wallet/ Hard Storage

A wallet is directly connected to the internet at all times for example that one that is being held on a centralized exchange. Hot wallets are considered to have more security than cold storage systems or hardware wallets.

Hybrid Consensus Model: PoS/PoW

A hybrid consensus model uses a combination of Proof of Stake and Proof of Work consensus. Utilizing the Hybrid consensus mechanism, blocks can be validated from not only miners and also voters to form balanced network governance.


Linux foundations hosted the blockchain project called as Hyperledger. Being an open-source platform, Hyperledger aims to bring collaborative effort from the blockchain specialists in the market for the improvement of Blockchain technology. It consists of diverse systems and tools for developing open-source blockchains.


The world’s first fastest and secured and fairly distributed ledger, Hedera Hashgraph can perform 500,000 transactions/second. It is a directed acrylic graph that has the properties of the DLT and does not require Proof-of-Work like Blockchain-based platforms.


The particular range of hashes that perform by a bitcoin mineworker as per the given amount of time.



The inability to altered or changed over time. A key element of blockchain networks that were once written onto a blockchain ledger where data cannot be altered. This kind of immutability offers the basis for commerce and trading to take place on blockchain networks.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

An initial coin offering which is also called ICO occurs when any new cryptocurrency sells advanced token in exchange for the upfront capital.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

It is decentralized role storage and referencing system that is available for the Ethereum blockchain. IPFS is an open-source protocol that provides the storing and sharing of hypermedia is a distributed manner without depending on a single point of failure. The distributed file system enables apps for running faster and safer and more transparently.


KYC (Know Your Customer)

It is a process in which a business verifies the identity and background information of their customers. For example, the current regulations and laws need banks and financial institutions for keeping and reporting customers’ personal information and transactions.



The availability of liquid asses for a company or market. An asset is considered more liquid if it can get easily converted into cash. The harder the ability for running an asset into cash the more illiquid the asset. The liquidity of any asset have the power to affect the risk potential and its market price.

Liquid Democracy

The government system where votes can be delegated or proxied to other individuals like politicians or friends, or subject matter experts.

Lightning Network

Lightning network is the best solution for Bitcoin’s inherent scalability issues. It has the potential to enable payments fast with the help of Smart Contracts functionality. Also, it allows cross-blockchain payments if both the users utilize the same cryptographic hash function.

Light Node

It is a computer on the blockchain network that verifies a finite number of transactions that are relevant to its dealing using SPV (simplified payment verification) mode.



The primary network where the real transactions take place on a specific distributed ledger. For example, The Ethereum mainnet is the public blockchain where network validation and transaction takes place.

Market Cap

Short for Market Capitalization, the term refers to the total value held in a particular industry, company, market, or asset. For a publicly-traded company, the market cap is the total dollar market value of any company’s outstanding shares. For bitcoin or ethereum, the total market cap is the real reflection of the existing supply times the market price.

Merkle Tree

It is similar to the family tree concept where a parent branch splits into children’s branches which are extrapolated into grandchildren branches. It is a kind of data structure in which a single hash code function splits into small branches.


Mining is a process in which blocks of transactions are verified and added to a blockchain. For verifying a block, a miner uses a computer for solving a cryptographic problem. After the computer has solved the problem, the block is called mined or verified.


A crypto-asset wallet needs multiple keys for accessing. Generally, a specified number of individuals are needed for approving or sign a transaction before they can access the wallet. It is different from most of the wallets that need signature for approving the transaction.


Node (Full Node)

Any computer that is connected to the blockchain network is referred to as a node. A full node is a computer that can validate transactions and download the whole data of a particular blockchain. In contrast, a lightweight or light node does not download all pieces of blockchain’s data and utilizes a diverse validation process.

Non-Fungible token (NFT)

Fungibility means an object’s ability to get exchanged for another. For example, an individual dollar is known as fungible it can trade dollars with one another. The Artwork is deemed non-fungible as sculptures, paintings. Masterpieces that are likely to get unequal in quality or value. Non-fungible is a type of token which is a unique digital asset and has no equal token. It is in contrast to cryptocurrencies like ether that 



An Oracle is any entity or a person that is relied on the report of the outcome of any event. In a blockchain network, an oracle helps to communicate data to a smart contract that can be used for verifying an event or any particular outcome.

Off-Ledger Currency

Off-Ledger currency refers to such a currency that is minted off-ledger and utilized on-ledger.

On-Ledger Currency

On-Ledger currency refers to such a currency that is mired on-ledger and used like Bitcoin.


Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

P2P refers to interactions that happens between two parties usually two separate individuals. A peer-to-peer network can be any number of individuals. Concerning the blockchain network, individuals can interact or transact with one another without depending on an intermediary or single point of failure.

Permissioned Ledger

A blockchain network that accesses to the ledger or network needs permission from an individual or group of individuals. Permissioned ledgers have one or more than one owner. Permissioned blockchains or only ledgers consists of high-verified data sets because the consensus process builds a digital signature that can be seen by all parties.

Private Blockchain

A blockchain or distributed ledger has a closed network where participants are controlled by a single entity. A private blockchain needs a verification process for new participants. A private blockchain can limit the individuals that can participate in the consensus of the blockchain network.

Private Currency

A currency or a token that is being issued by a private individual or a firm. Generally, the token or currency is limited to utilized in the same network of that firm or individual. This should not get confused with privacy cryptocurrency that is cryptocurrency with particular privacy features like hidden user identities.

Private Key

A private key is an alphanumeric string of data that corresponds to the single wallet or public address. Private keys can be considered as that of a password that enables an individual to access their crypto wallet or account. Never reveal your personal and private key to anyone as the person who controls the private key has access to control the funds. If you will lose your private key then you will be losing your access directly to your wallet.

Proof of Authority

A consensus mechanism utilized in private blockchains to grants a single private key the whole authority for generating all of the blocks or validating transactions.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

PoS is an alternative consensus protocol under which an individual or validator will utilize their cryptocurrency like ether on whatever transactions they will be choosing for validation. Proof of Stake needs a negligible amount of computing power that is compared for Proof of Work consensus.

Proof of Work (PoW)

A protocol for establishing consensus across the systems that hold mining capability for computational power. Hashing a block, which is itself an easy computational process needs each miner for solving a set of difficult variable.


A set of rules that shows how the data is exchanged and transmitted. This pertains to cryptocurrency in blockchain when referring to the formal rules that will show how these actions will get performed on a specified network.

Public Blockchain

A public blockchain is a globally open network where anyone can participate in the transactions and executes consensus protocol for helping in determining which block gets added to the chain and maintains the shared ledger.

Public Key

Obtained and utilized by adobe for encrypting messages before they are sent at an unknown recipient address with a matched private key for decryption. By pairing a public key with a private key, the transactions will not depend on trusting involved parties or intermediaries that are possible. The public key encrypts a message into an unreadable format and the corresponding private key makes it again readable for the third party.


The Participant is a person who is responsible for accessing the ledger for reading records and adding them to the blockchain.


Peer is responsible for maintaining the whole integrity and identity of the ledger.



Any of the party or entity that hosts an off-chain order book. Relayers assist traders in discovering counterparties and cryptographically move orders in between them.


Ripple is the payment method that is built on the distributed ledger and can be utilized for transferring any cryptocurrency. It consists of gateways and payment nodes that are operated by the authorities.

Ring signature

Ring signature refers to the cryptographic technology that provides a good level of organization on the blockchain. These signatures ensure that the individual transaction outputs on the blockchain cannot be detected.

Replicated Ledger

Replicated ledger is a ledger that has one master copy of the data and has multiple sale copies.


Santoshi Nakamoto

Santoshi Nakamoto is a pseudonymous individual or a person who created the Bitcoin protocol for solving the digital currency issues of the double spend. Nakamoto published the white paper for describing the project in 2008 and release the first Bitcoin software just one year later.


Serialisation is the process of converting a data structure into a sequence of bytes. Ethereum internally makes use of an encoding format that is called recursive-length prefix encoding (RLP).


Scalability is a change in the size or scale for handling the network’s demand. This word is especially used for referring a blockchain project’s ability to handle the whole network traffic, capacity and future growth in the intended app.


Sharing refers to the splitting of the entire network into multiple portions called shards. Each shard contains its independent state means a unique set of account balances and smart contracts. Shards must get coupled tight and side-chains must be coupled loose.

Slashing Condition

A Slashing condition is a condition that causes the validator’s deposit to get destroyed when they trigger it.

Smart Contracts

These are programs whose terms are recorded in a computer language instead of legal language. Smart contracts are automated actions that can get coded and executed once a set of conditions is met.


Understanding by its name, it functions by itself and not controlled by any other party. Self-executing smart contracts cut costs by removing the requirement for an arbitrator and trust the third party.

Soft Fork

A Soft fork is a change to the software protocol where previously valid blocks or transactions are made invalid.


It is a programming language that developers use for writing smart contracts on the ethereum network.


Stablecoin is a cryptocurrency pegged to a stable asset like fiat or gold. It remains stable in price and measured against a known amount of assets that is not subject to fluctuation.


It is a set of data that any blockchain network needs for keeping a track of that will represents data currently relevant to the apps on the chain.



It is an alternative that blockchain developers use for testing applications in a near-live environment.

Testnet Koven

Ethereum Testnet that utilizes proof of authority consensus and currently only supports Parity clients.

Testnet Rinkeby

It is an Ethereum Testnet that utilizes proof of authority consensus and currently only supports gets clients.

Testnet Ropsten

Ethereum Testnet that uses Proof of Work consensus and can utilize gets or even Parity and is currently similar to mainnet.


It represents an asset that is built on the existing blockchain. Tokens are designed to be unique, secure, liquid, and instantly transferrable and digitally scarce.

Transaction Block

It is a collection of transactions on a blockchain network that is gathered into a set or a block that can be hashed and added to the blockchain.

Transaction Fee

A small fee imposed on some transactions sent across the blockchain network. The transaction fee is awarded to the miner that successfully hashes the whole block that contains a similar transaction.

Turing Complete

Any machine that can get calculated on a level that is equal to a programmable computer is the Turing Complete or computationally universal.


Unpermissioned Ledgers

It means nobody can own these ledgers like bitcoin has its no sole owner. It allows anyone to add data to the ledger and everyone who has the ownership of the ledger to have the identical copies.



A participant in Proof of Stake consensus. They need to submit a security deposit for getting the validator set.



The Wallet is a designated storage location for digital assets that have an address to send and receive funds. The wallet can be offline, online or even on a physical device.


Whisper is a part of the Ethereum P2P protocol site that allows for messaging in between users using the blockchain network. The main task of Whisper is to offer a communication protocol between dApps.



XRP is the native cryptocurrency for the Ripple distributed ledger payment network that acts as a bridge currency for other countries.



It is an acronym for a zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge where a cryptographic proof of system enables a user for verifying the transaction without revealing the real data of the transaction and without interacting with the user who published the transaction.